He then returned to Rome to start putting the Greco-Roman world in order. The easiest and fastest way to find peer-reviewed articles is to search the online library databases, many of which include peer-reviewed journals.To make sure your results come from peer-reviewed (also called "scholarly" or "academic") journals, do the following: The civil war was a tragedy, for war was not wanted either by Caesar or by Pompey or even by a considerable part of the nobility, while the bulk of the Roman citizen body ardently hoped for the preservation of peace. Caesar’s physical vitality perhaps partly accounts for his sexual promiscuity, which was out of the ordinary, even by contemporary Greek and Roman standards. Julius Caesar was arrogant, cunning, and a military mastermind. Caesar’s most amazing characteristic is his energy, intellectual and physical. Probably Caesar looked upon these as trivial recreations. Yet, even if Caesar were to prove to have been of lesser stature than this Chinese colossus, he would still remain a giant by comparison with the common run of human beings (see also ancient Rome). It was also not rich or influential or even distinguished. Caesar, who had assiduously cultivated Pompey’s friendship, now entered into a secret pact with him. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Caesar’s most amazing characteristic is his energy, intellectual and physical. The prolongation of the life of the Greco-Roman civilization had important historical effects. A Roman noble won distinction for himself and his family by securing election to a series of public offices, which culminated in the consulship, with the censorship possibly to follow. But what would cause a person to kill a close friend? Gaius Julius Caesar was a Roman aristocrat, politician, military leader, Dictator, and author, active in the last decades of the Roman Republic, in the first century BC. Yet, though not lovable, Julius Caesar was and is attractive, indeed fascinating. Born into the patrician class, Caesar was intelligent, educated, and cultivated. Caesar pursued Pompey from Thessaly to Egypt, where Pompey was murdered by an officer of King Ptolemy. Caesar was great beyond—and even in conflict with—the requirements of his political ambition. Some stood to lose, rather than to gain, personally by the removal of the autocrat who had made their political fortunes. As had been agreed at Luca in 56 BCE, Caesar’s commands had been prolonged for five years, apparently until February 28, 49 BCE, but this is not certain. Caesar then cowed the opposition by employing some of Pompey’s veterans to make a riot, and the distribution was carried out. He did not succeed, however. The value of the consulship lay in the lucrative provincial governorship to which it would normally lead. He was acquiring the military manpower, the plunder, and the prestige that he needed to secure a free hand for the prosecution of the task of reorganizing the Roman state and the rest of the Greco-Roman world. As a priest not only had to be of patrician stock, but married to a patrician, Caesar broke off his engagement to a plebian girl and married the patrician, Cornelia, daughter of a high profile and influential … When he was sixteen, his father died and Caesar became the head of the family. Already, from 46. This partial financial recovery enabled him, after his return to Rome in 60 BCE, to stand for the consulship for 59 BCE. They had been goaded into this volte-face by the increasingly monarchical trend of Caesar’s regime and, perhaps at least as much, by the aristocratic disdain that inhibited Caesar from taking any trouble to sugar the bitter pill. The Julii Caesares traced their lineage back to the goddess Venus, but the family was not snobbish or conservative-minded. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. For instance, in the winter of 57–56 BCE he found time to visit his third province, Illyria, as well as Cisalpine Gaul; and in the interval between his campaigns of 55 and 54 BCE he transacted public business in Cisalpine Gaul and went to Illyria to settle accounts with the Pirustae, a turbulent tribe in what is now Albania. You are currently viewing the International edition of our site.. You might also want to visit our French Edition.. In public funeral orations in their honour, Caesar found opportunities for praising Cinna and Marius. At Alexandria, probably aged 53, he saved himself from sudden death by his prowess as a swimmer. His generosity to defeated opponents, magnanimous though it was, did not win their affection. Caesar had to make sure that, until his entry on his second consulship, he should continue to hold at least one province with the military force to guarantee his security. Learn how your comment data is processed. The whole Mediterranean world was, in fact, at the mercy of the Roman nobility and of a new class of Roman businessmen, the equites (“knights”), which had grown rich on military contracts and on tax farming. Out of the characters in the play which one do you most resemble? Either alternative would result in a disastrous civil war. This name has survived, as has Caesar’s reform of the calendar. If he had not done this when he did it, Rome and the Greco-Roman world might have succumbed, before the beginning of the Christian era, to barbarian invaders in the West and to the Parthian Empire in the East. In 54 BCE he raided Britain again and subdued a serious revolt in northeastern Gaul. This achievement was all the more amazing in light of the fact that the Romans did not possess any great superiority in military equipment over the north European barbarians. 116 likes. In 58 BCE Rome’s northwestern frontier, established in 125 BCE, ran from the Alps down the left bank of the upper Rhône River to the Pyrenees, skirting the southeastern foot of the Cévennes and including the upper basin of the Garonne River without reaching the Gallic shore of the Atlantic. All of these traits combined helped make him a skilled politician. This famous leader, however, met his demise when he was assassinated by his own people. The mark of Julius Caesar’s genius in his writings is that though they were written for propaganda they are nevertheless of outstanding literary merit. Caesar reconquered the Veneti with some difficulty and treated them barbarously. The peoples of central Gaul found a national leader in the Arvernian Vercingetorix. Yet he involved himself at least twice in escapades that might have wrecked his career. Great though this achievement was, its relative importance in Caesar’s career and in Roman history has been overestimated in Western tradition (as have his brief raids on Britain). Julius Caesar is a famous Roman general and husband to Calpurnia. On January 1, 49 BCE, the Senate received from Caesar a proposal that he and Pompey should lay down their commands simultaneously. Caesar now succeeded in organizing an irresistible coalition of political bosses. The traditional competition among members of the Roman nobility for office and the spoils of office was thus threatening to turn into a desperate race for seizing autocratic power. By dallying with her at Alexandria, he risked losing what he had just won at Pharsalus. After that, he was ready to settle his accounts with his opponents at home. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Julius Caesar - Julius Caesar - Personality and reputation: Caesar was not and is not lovable. The Chinese state founded by Shih-huang-ti in the 3rd century BCE still stands, and its future may be still greater than its past. Rome’s victory over Carthage in the Second Punic War (218–201 BCE) had made Rome the paramount power in the Mediterranean basin; an influential Roman noble family’s clients (that is, protégés who, in return, gave their patrons their political support) might include kings and even whole nations, besides numerous private individuals. Pompey had soon become restive toward his alarmingly successful ally Caesar, as had Crassus toward his old enemy Pompey. He had a profound impact on Western civilization as a military leader, politician, writer and historian. The old Roman calendar was inaccurate and manipulated for political purposes. Pompey couldn’t count on an army as large as Caesar’s . In all these, Caesar was a supreme virtuoso. Caesar ranked as a masterly public speaker in an age in which he was in competition first with Hortensius and then with Cicero. The Julii Caesares did not seem to be in the running. The marriage link between Pompey and Caesar had been broken by Julia’s death in 54 BCE. Julius Caesar was right, from his point of view, to try to put salt on Cato’s tail. He found time in the year 46 BCE to reform the Roman calendar. Next day Marcellus (without authorization from the Senate) offered the command over all troops in Italy to Pompey, together with the power to raise more; and Pompey accepted. An excellent speaker, he possessed a sharp sense of humor, charm, and personality. modern France) into the Mediterranean world i.e. Caesar fails to understand the many signs indicating a plot against him and is killed by a conspiracy led by Cassius and Brutus. Julius Caesar is seen as the greatest leader Rome ever had and he was one person that dominated most of his enemies and expanded the Roman Empire. Between 58 and 50 BCE, Caesar conquered the rest of Gaul up to the left bank of the Rhine and subjugated it so effectively that it remained passive under Roman rule throughout the Roman civil wars between 49 and 31 BCE. Take this test and let’s find out! In 53 BCE he subdued further revolts in Gaul and bridged the Rhine again for a second raid. Crassus—like Pompey, a former lieutenant of Sulla—had been one of the most active of Pompey’s obstructors so far. Hạ Long, Quảng Ninh. Julius Caesar is seen as the main example of Caesarism, a form of political rule led by a charismatic strongman whose rule is based upon a cult of personality, whose rationale is the need to rule by force, establishing a violent social order, and being a regime involving prominence of … Today we will look at the INTJ (Introverted, Intuitive, Thinking, and Judging) MBTI type. In 58 BCE Caesar intervened beyond this line, first to drive back the Helvetii, who had been migrating westward from their home in what is now central Switzerland. In 52 BCE, a year in which Pompey was elected sole consul and given a five-year provincial command in Spain, Caesar was allowed by a law sponsored by all 10 tribunes to stand for the consulship in absentia. Caesar’s famous words, Veni, vidi, vici (“I came, I saw, I conquered”), are his own account of this campaign. Caesar’s earliest experience in his political career had been Sulla’s implacable persecution of his defeated domestic opponents.